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The Failure of Socialist Development in the Global South
Internal Flaws or External Subversion?

Daniel Christer Krook

Trinity College
Hartford, Connecticut
April 1999

Notes on the Text
I gathered information for this project over the course of June 1998 until about March of 1999. This includes some time spent in Cuba, South Africa, and Mozambique and the project was finished in the United States at the end of April 1999. As with all research projects however, this thesis is showing signs of age already. It's frustrating, but I've already come across a bunch of books I wish I had consulted during the course of my project, so please read this paper critically and with an eye out for other recent sources of information on the topic.

Furthermore, as it's a controversial subject, I welcome any support, derision, or corrections you would like to contribute.

I must express my gratitude to Silvía at the Universidad de La Habana, José the Boxer, Mateus in Maputo, Uzma, Velcro (for not biting me much during the last stressful weeks), and especially that guy at the bar in Inhambane who insisted on relating his life story as a FRELIMO soldier.

Thanks also to Brigitte Schulz and Luís Figueroa for their guidance during the course of this project.

ANC - African National Congress (South Africa).
CIA - Central Intelligence Agency (United States of America).
CMEA, also COMECON - Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. The Cold War era socialist trade bloc.
CDR - Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (Cuba).
FRELIMO - Frente de Liberação de Moçambique, Mozambican Liberation Front. First an anti-colonial movement, then the single party of a socialist Mozambique (Mozambique).
M-26-7 - Movemiento de 26 de Julio, the July 26th Movement. The designation of Fidel Castro's rebel army during its time as a guerrilla army. The date refers to the failed uprising of July 26, 1953 at the Moncada army barracks (Cuba).
MPLA - Movemiento Popular para la Liberação de Angola, The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola. (Angola).
RENAMO, also MNR - Resistência Nacional Moçambicana, Mozambican National Resistence. Rhodesian creation used to contest the post-independence legitimacy of FRELIMO. Adopted by South Africa in for its regional destabilization goals. (Mozambique).
PCC, earlier known as the PSP - Partida Comunista de Cuba, the Communist Party of Cuba. Cuba's single legal political party (Cuba).
SADCC - South African Development Coordinate Conference (Economic organization of majority-ruled states in southern Africa).
SADF - South African Defence Forces. Considering their role in southern Africa, "defence" is an ironic word choice (South Africa).
TRC - South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Created to address the transgressions of human rights during the apartheid era and to settle them through retrospective justice (South Africa).

from: Moreover &
Cuba Information Access


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Granma expeditionary; became Rebel commander and headed Antonio Maceo Column No. 2, leading march westward from Sierra Maestra to Las Villas Province; became Rebel Army chief of staff in January 1959; plane lost at sea on October 28, 1959.